Friday, February 7, 2020
What are the key internal factors and external factors to be considered in price decision making - Essay Example he equilibrium point where demand curve intersects with supply curve is the deciding point at which price is determined. When price is considered in terms of demand and supply, it can be said that price has inverse relationship with demand and positive relationship with supply. In other words, when price increases demand decreases and vice versa, while price increases supply also increases. This is because, when price increases, the customers would like to reduce its consumption as the product seems to be more expensive. Likewise, when price increases, the firms will be encouraged to produce or supply more, as they expect more for their products. In another words, price has the tendency to be increased by the increased demand and to be decreased by the increased supply. But in a real market, price is not solely determined by the equilibrium position of supply and demand, but some other factors also play crucial role in deciding the price of the products. Pricing is a more a complex a nd complicated process than a simple determination of demand and supply. Hence, pricing policies which are deliberately taken by the firm is the most important deciding factor which decides the price of a particular product. These pricing policies of the firm are influenced, in general, by two sets of factors- internal and external. Both the internal as well as external factors influence the pricing decisions of any enterprise or firm. These factors may be psychological, economical, quantitative or qualitative. (Sawyer, 1981 and Kotler, 1997). 2. Internal Factors Pricing decisions are influenced by a number of internal factors which consist of profit margin, cost of production and other expenses, brand image and expectations of the company, suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ and employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ efficiency and responsiveness of the product to the price changes (Kotler, 1997). . These factors can broadly categorized under the following heads: 2.1 Corporate and marketing objectives of the firm. Corpo rate and marketing objectives of the firm mainly seek to recover the cost elements of all types, to make target returns and to maximize the profit. Coverage of the corporate cost of production as well as marketing should be an influential factor of pricing policy of the firm. Corporate objective of making specific return rates on the basis of internal cost factors is another important internal factor which play crucial role in an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s pricing strategy. Some important examples of other market objectives are survival of the firm in a high competitive atmosphere, current profit maximization, market share leadership and product quality leadership (Munroe, 1990). 2.2. Image sought by the firm through the price By setting a particular price or implementing a pricing policy, the firms seek a particular public image and this image plays a crucial role in the pricing policy. For example, premium prices are usually being charged for global brand. Likewise, a plant keep going by setting a low price in the hope that in future, the plant can increase the demand. In this case, survival is more important than price or profit maximization (Forman, 1998). 2.2 The Stage of the Production in its life cycle The stage of the production under which the firm goes through is an important factor in the price setting strategy. Whether the firm is going through increasing, decreasing or stagnant returns of scale and where the position of its average and marginal product curves stand, are the important things which decisively play role in the pricing policy of the firm. 2.3. Capacity Utilization and Market Contribution rates Capacity utilization has a positive influence on cost-based pricing strategies. Organizations operating at full capacity are capable of spreading the fixed cost to various units and
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Doing Business Abroad Essay Companies around the world are expanding in order to meet a larger market. However, this is no easy task even for people who have been doing business for decades for there is always this thing called cultural diversity. This thing is put into consideration not only of companies and managers that establish businesses in other countries but also of those who engage into joint ventures and alliances. Setting a company globally requires not only good managers but thorough study as well. A market research would be very helpful especially to determine the needs and wants of the people in the locality. A bunch of factors affect the preference of people like religion, beliefs and environment. Should the product be modified to fit the desires of the people? For instance, burgers with beef patty are modified in order to be accepted and sold in Hindu-dominated countries. There are also cross-cultural trainings for managers that would be sent abroad. These are usually conducted by business schools with the aim of providing global managers who have the ability to cope with different challenges that they may encounter, especially those that are brought about by diversity in culture. However, as much as these trainings would help, they are not yet enough to suffice for the thorough understanding and settlement of cultural differences that might yield success to a business that spread its wings. Problems still remain due to this cultural diversity. Even with the repute of English in conducting business globally, language remains a problem. Language, as defined in the Merriam Webster Dictionary, is words with their pronunciation and the methods of combining them to be used and understood by a community. Words are not enough. Pronunciation and accent are essential, and at this part is where problem usually occurs. As Edward Burman cited in his article entitled Managing Cultural Diversity in a Global World, linguistic confidence can be perceived as quasi-colonial arrogance and this may eventually lead to conflicts. Similarly, jokes and stories which are essential in building harmonious relationship among workers are affected, not just because of the way they were delivered but more importantly by the context that they were formulated. Some humorous acts might be insulting to others, which again might lead to discord. Another problem that may arise due to cultural diversity is the way the human resource personnel determines the appropriate candidate for a job. Whether be it an expatriate or a native of the location of the headquarter, the measure to the achievements of an applicant varies from the school where he acquired his degree and skill to the society where he belong. These qualities may not be well-reflected in his application forms or the result of his examination or interview. Although it may be known to the resource manager that different cultures respond differently to various situations, the challenge is still to determine the best person whose culture and skill perfectly fits the job. Also, developing the trust with people from other culture opens another difficulty especially if a company will merge or ally with a local company of other country. Research can be done to be able to identify possible reasons to trust but it remains a thorny job for the managers in the negotiation table. Everything will matter, from the physical appearance to the gestures. Aside from these problems cited by Edward Burman, the way to designate a manager to a place is something to be thoroughly thought of. According to an interview with Robert J. Freeman, Americans are a bit resistant to exotic destinations. The question then is how these Americans would be assigned to a location beyond his desire. Or since there are expatriates of more than sixty nationalities, which should be chosen and what type of compromise would the company give to convince the manager. Nevertheless, these problems can be addressed if global managers have several skills as discussed by Josephine Song in her article Transcending Borders. The first is technical skills. Aside from the field that he is expected to master in order to efficiently perform his task, he must also be able to utilize the means that globalization brings for the betterment of doing things. He must be able to maximize opportunities and resources that might be useful for the accomplishment of his job. Likewise, he must also have good communication skills which comprise not only of knowledge of words but their proper pronunciation and usage as well, most especially English which is the basic medium for conducting business globally. Communication is not only via speaking, but also via reading, writing or listening. More importantly, global managers must take caution in their words and actions so that misunderstandings would be avoided. They must also be innovative and resourceful to improve their businesses according to the locality. With increase in expatriates all over the globe, I think it would be unfair to say that they or the locals could better cope with the changes. They might have an advantage with regards to having dealt with different cultures already that they might not find it anymore difficult to relate with another set of people. Their presence in the top management could also bring global perspective. But, their knowledge of the culture of the country where the company is located might be very limited as compared to the locals. Yes, they may be able to learn and adapt but still, the culture instilled in them would always be a part of them and their decisions and reservations. I think, it would be better to have a mix of expatriate and local managers in a global business for as Burman concluded, management remains culture-bound, be it local or expatriate.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Access to Information - The Widening Gap The Ã¢â¬Å"Digital DivideÃ¢â¬ is a buzz phrase heard today in North America. It refers to the growing divide between people who have and do not have access to information specifically via the internet. There are various forms of digital divides but the one that is the most despair is the global digital divide between industrialized countries and developing nations. Optimists feel that the internet and information it carries brings potential to societies of developing nations but pessimists feel that the internet offers no new potential for developing nations but rather it reinforces existing divisions of inequality. Various positive and negative outlooks will be delved into in this essay to give a broader perspective of the scenario of the global digital divide. One could also very well argue that information technology will not stop spreading around the globe and in fact there are many projects and policies being put up to expand information and communication technologies (ICTÃ¢â ¬â¢s) all around the world. By identifying this, working on bridging the global digital divide and trying to utilize information communication technologies to their full potential is what should be done because it will be a very complex procedure do to the inherit original problems developing countries already are dealing with. This essay will also explore efficient ways of bridging this immense gap. There are many plausible reasons why the internet age may reinforce disparities between postindustrial economies at the core of the network and developing societies at the periphery. (Pippa, p5) It will be hard for developing nation to get on the internet bandwagon because of plagues such as burdens of debt, dieses, fami... ...vember 3/03. Online at: http://www.dotforce.org/reports/matrix.html Norris, Pippa. Digital Divide, Civic Engagement, Information Poverty, and the Internet World Wide. Cambridge University press, 2001. Servon, Lisa. Bridging the Digital Divide. Technology, Community, and Public Policy. The Information Age Series. Oxford: Blackwell publishing, 2002. United Nations Activities Addressing the Digital Divide: Building "Digital Bridges" for The 21st Century. Prepared by the Centre for Global Studies at the University of Victoria with the assistance of the International Development Research Centre. August 2000. Referenced on November 11/03. Online at: http://www.globalcenters.org/html/docs/digital.pdf Warchauer, Mark. Technology and Social Inclusion Rethinking the Digital Divide. Cambridge: Massachusetts institute of technology, 2003.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The Comparison between Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theory There are very distinct differences between Psychodynamic and Humanistic Counselling but both ultimately offer the help and guidance to discover why we act the way we do and why we make certain choices in our lives. Throughout this essay, I will endeavour to explain those major differences and you will see that despite these completely different methods of therapy, depending on what the problem maybe, they can both work very effectively in their own way. Carl Rogers, born in 1902, was the originator of the Person Centred Approach or Humanistic Theory.His work was influenced by his experience of being a client and a counsellor (Casemore, 2006) and he believed a trusting relationship was essential in helping the client to grow and develop in order that they could cope with difficulties in a more effective manner and to function more effectively. There is a strong emphasis of the need for counsellors to think of their clients as people rather than impersonal bodies. Characteristics important for effectiveness in the counsellor/client relationship are congruence, where the counsellor must be genuinely themselves, a complete and whole person.Empathic, which is the ability to understand and appreciate the clients perspective. To Ã¢â¬ËliveÃ¢â¬â¢ in their world and accept who they are unconditionally and unconditional positive regard which involves accepting the client completely and in a non-judgemental way. Rogers believed that all humans have a natural desire for personal growth and potential so that they can take responsibility for their own actions and the way they live their lives. This view is called the Actualising Tendency. He believed that everybody had an inner need to wholeness.The self-concept is also important in Person Centred Counselling. This relates to the individuals perception or the way in which they see themselves based on life experiences and attitudes from those important people arou nd them when they were young. Abraham Maslow is another theorist whose contribution to the Person Centred Approach is very significant. He proposed a hierarchy of needs which he believed were responsible for human motivation and drive. They are as follows: Physiological Needs Ã¢â¬â These are biological needs.They consist of needs for oxygen, food, and water. They are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction. Safety Needs Ã¢â¬â When all physiological needs are satisfied and are no longer controlling thoughts and behaviors, the needs for security can become active. Needs of Love, Affection and Belongingness Ã¢â¬â When the needs for safety and for physiological well-being are satisfied, the next class of needs for love, affection and belongingness can emerge.Needs for Esteem Ã¢â¬â When the first three classes of needs are satisfied, the needs for esteem can become domi nant. These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others. Needs for Self-Actualization Ã¢â¬â When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then and only then are the needs for self-actualization activated. Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's need to be and do that which the person was Ã¢â¬Å"born to do. Ã¢â¬ According to Maslow it is possible for people to work towards self-actualisation by practising behaviours which encourage the development of confidence and openness.These include; trying new experiences and to challenge oneself, to assume responsibility, strive to be honest and to develop a capacity to trust onself, Both Maslow and Rogers had very similar views. Maslow believed that the most basic drive was to become the person that one is capable of becoming and Rogers believed that the basic drive was to become the person that one truly is. Gestalt Therapy is a psychotherapy, based on the experiential ideal of Ã¢â¬Å"here and nowÃ¢â¬ , and relationships with others and the world, and was co-founded by Fritz Perls, Laura Perls and Paul Goodman in the 1940s-1950s (Wikipidia 2004).Perls did not belive in a single particular theory. He thought you should always just go with the flow and work with what you have and what is happening in the now. He placed great importance on the client becoming self aware and thus developed the Gestalt theory. This therapy focuses more on process (what is happening) than content (what is being discussed). The emphasis is on what is being done, thought and felt at the moment rather than on what was, might be, could be, or should be.Perls believed in minipulating the client, bringing them out of their comfort zone and challenging them. To own what you say and do and to be aware of unconscious actions/words. In the 1950's Eric Berne began to develop his theories of Transactional Analysis. He said that verbal communication, particularly face to face, is at the centre of hum an social relationships and psychoanalysis. His starting-point was that when two people encounter each other, one of them will speak to the other. This he called the Transaction Stimulus.The reaction from the other person he called the Transaction Response. The person sending the Stimulus is called the Agent. The person who responds is called the Respondent. Transactional Analysis became the method of examining the transaction wherein: Ã¢â¬ËI do something to you, and you do something back'. Berne also said that each person is made up of three alter ego states: Parent Ã¢â¬â This is our ingrained voice of authority, absorbed conditioning, learning and attitudes from when we were young. Child Ã¢â¬â Our internal reaction and feelings to external events form the Ã¢â¬ËChild'.This is the seeing, hearing, feeling, and emotional body of data within each of us. When anger or despair dominates reason, the Child is in control. Adult Ã¢â¬â Our Ã¢â¬ËAdult' is our ability to think a nd determine action for ourselves, based on received data. The adult in us begins to form at around ten months old, and is the means by which we keep our Parent and Child under control. If we are to change our Parent or Child we must do so through our adult. Transactional Analysis is effectively a language within a language; a language of true meaning, feeling and motive.It can help you in every situation, firstly through being able to understand more clearly what is going on, and secondly, by virtue of this knowledge, we give ourselves choices of what ego states to adopt, which signals to send, and where to send them. This enables us to make the most of all our communications and therefore create, develop and maintain better relationships (Businessballs. com) Looking at the Psychodynamic side, Freud took the view that human beings are never free from their behaviours, thoughts and feelings.That we are governed by past events and reinact them in our present. Sigmund Freud is the fat her of the Psychodynamic Theory. This focuses on the unconscious aspects of personality. According to Freud the human mind is like an iceberg. It is mostly hidden in the unconscious. He believed that the conscious level of the mind was similar to the tip of the iceberg which could be seen, but the unconscious was mysterious and was hidden. The unconscious also consists of aspects of personality of which a person is unaware. The conscious on the other hand is that which is within our awareness.The preconscious consists of that which is not in immediate awareness but is easily accessible (Himmat Rana 1997) Freud believed the personality is made up of three parts. They are: Id Ã¢â¬â the oldest part and present from birth and necessary for survival. The Ego Ã¢â¬â realistic awareness of self and of the world. Has evolved through contact with the external world and is determined by the individuals own experiences. Acts as mediator between the id and the superego and the Superego Ã¢â ¬â parental and social influences. Moral judgement and conscience.Main function is to curb he demands of the id. When anxiety occurs, the mind first responds by an increase in problem-solving thinking, seeking rational ways of escaping the situation. If this is not fruitful, a range of defence mechanisms may be triggered. In Freud's language, these are tactics which the Ego develops to help deal with the Id and the Super Ego. Freud's Defence Mechanisms include: Ã ·Denial: claiming/believing that what is true to be actually false. Ã ·Displacement: redirecting emotions to a substitute target. Intellectualization: taking an objective viewpoint. Ã ·Projection: attributing uncomfortable feelings to others. Ã ·Rationalization: creating false but credible justifications. Ã ·Reaction Formation: overacting in the opposite way to the fear. Ã ·Regression: going back to acting as a child. Ã ·Repression: pushing uncomfortable thoughts into the subconscious. Ã ·Sublimation: redirecting Ã¢â¬Ëwrong' urges into socially acceptable actions. Carl Jung was an associate of Freud who disagreed on a number of issues and finally broke away from Freud with his own ideas.He developed Analytical Psychology and it consists of the following; The collective unconscious Ã¢â¬â This is the deepest part of the psyche which contains all experiences that are inherited. The Personal Unconscious Ã¢â¬â This is material that was once conscious but has become forgotton or suppressed. Jung referred to the universal ideas and images of the collective unconscious as archetypes. These are original forms which all human beings in all societies recognise. Archetypes can also appear in shared emotional experience and these unconscious ideas and patterns of thought are likely to surface during momentous events such as birth and death.This shared psychological experience was regarded by Jung as evidence of a collective unconscious. There are four major archetypes of the collective unconscio us: The word Ã¢â¬Å"personaÃ¢â¬ means a mask and refers to the outward appearance which people use in everyday life. The word Ã¢â¬Å"animaÃ¢â¬ refers to the unconscious female quality in the male and the word Ã¢â¬Å"animusÃ¢â¬ refers to the unconscious male quality in the female. The shadow is the inferior being within us which is primitive and animal. It is also the personal unconscious is similar to Freuds concept of the id.The term Ã¢â¬Å"selfÃ¢â¬ describes a state of complete integration of all the separate elements of personality (Hough 1994) Alfred Adler broke away from Freuds school and set up his own called individual psychology. He believed that personality developed through sibling order and placed emphasis on the social development of man. He viewed people as mostly conscious rather than unconscious. For Adler, it was useless to focus on drives and impulses without giving attention to how the person creatively directs the drives. Adler believed that inferiorit y feelings are the source of all human striving.All individual progress, growth and development result from the attempt to compensate for one's inferiorities. Feeling unattractive, or don't belong somewhere. Not strong enough or smart enough. So everyone is trying to overcome something that is hampering them from becoming what they want to become. The meaning of superiority is like self-realization. The striving for perfections is innate in the sense that it is a part of life. Throughout a person's life, Adler believed, he or she is motivated by the need to overcome the sense of inferiority and strive for ever higher levels of development.Everything Adler says ties into the lifestyle. For Adler, meanings are not determined by situation, but we are self-determined by the meaning we attribute to a situation. Melanie Klein had a significant impact on child psychology and contemporary psychoanalysis. She was a leading innovator in theorizing object relations theory. According to Klein, the infant's world was threatened from the beginning by intolerable anxieties, whose source she believed to be the infant's own death instinct.These Ã¢â¬Å"persecutoryÃ¢â¬ anxieties, which were felt in the infant's own bodily needs as well as from the external frustrations to those needs, were overwhelming to the infant, and in order to combat them the infant resorted to defenses whose aim was to isolate her from them. Through these primitive defensesÃ¢â¬âprojection, denial, splitting, withdrawal, and Ã¢â¬Å"omnipotent controlÃ¢â¬ of these objectsÃ¢â¬âthe infant put threatening, Ã¢â¬Å"badÃ¢â¬ objects, outside herself and into the external world; simultaneously, she preserved the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ objects, both within herself and externally, by splitting them off from their malevolent counterparts.Perhaps the most fundamental of these processes were projection and introjection, which described the infant's first, primitive attempts to differentiate himself from the w orld, inside from outside, self from other, based on the prototype of oral incorporation (and spitting out) and the infant's relation to his first, nurturing/frustrating object, the mother's breast. In Bowlby's approach, the child is considered to have a need for a secure relationship with adult caregivers, without which normal social and emotional development will not occur.However, different relationship experiences can lead to different developmental outcomes. A number of attachment styles in infants with distinct characteristics have been identified known as secure attachment, avoidant attachment, anxious attachment and disorganized attachment. These can be measured in both infants and adults Attachment is an affectional tie that one person forms between him/herself and another specific one (usually the parent) Ã¢â¬â a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time.Attachment theory states that attachment is a developmental process based on the evolved adaptive t endency for young children to maintain proximity to a familiar person, called the attachment figure. Four different attachment styles have been identified in children: secure, anxious-ambivalent, anxious-avoidant, and disorganized. Secure Attachment Ã¢â¬â The child protests the mother's departure and quiets promptly on the mother's return, accepting comfort from her and returning to exploration.Avoidant Attachment Ã¢â¬â The child shows little to no signs of distress at the mother's departure, a willingness to explore the toys, and little to no visible response to the mother's return. Ambivalent Attachment Ã¢â¬â The child shows sadness on the mother's departure, ability to be picked up by the stranger and even Ã¢â¬Ëwarm' to the stranger, and on the mother's return, some ambivalence, signs of anger, reluctance to Ã¢â¬Ëwarm' to her and return to play. Disorganized Attachment Ã¢â¬â The child presents stereotypes upon the mother's return after separation, such as freezing for several seconds or rocking.This appears to indicate the child's lack of coherent coping strategy. Children who are classified as disorganized are also given a classification as secure, ambivalent or avoidant based on their overall reunion behavior. Ã¢â¬Å"The main differences between the two therapies are that the Psychodynamic Theory centres on the past experiences of the client. By using dream interpretation, free association and others, it concentrates on looking at childhood experiences and normal or abnormal development. Humanistic is based on the clients interpretation of what is happening in the here and now.It allows the client to express himself without having to look in the pastÃ¢â¬ . (Wiki. answers. com) Rogers believed that the counselling relationship was based on mutuality, in which both the client and the counsellor are of equal importance whereas in Psychodynamic Counselling the Counsellor is regarded as the expert. Bibliography Person Centred Counselling by R oger Casemore, 2006, Sage Publications A Practical Approach to Counselling by Margaret Hough, 1994, Pittman Publishing Sigmund Freud by Himmat Rana 1997 www. Wikipedia/Fritz_Perls Businessballs. com
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Multiculturalism and Education Policy How we educate our students is a contentious topic. Many stakeholders have different ideas about what will make our schools more successful. Without going into great detail about the past, it is safe to say the current paradigm is one of standards and assessment. Schools have gone Ã¢â¬Å"back to basicsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â reading, math, science, and little else (Newman, 2013). In order to be considered successful, schools have resorted to teaching to the standardized tests. Effective school advocates believe that the country should pay less attention to racial issues and student racial composition of schools and instead concentrate on academic quality only (Newman, 2006). I do not agree. I do not feel that school success is an all or nothing venture where we have to decide between concentrating only on academic quality or multicultural issues. Instead, I think that concentrating on multiculturalism issues, such as racial issues and racial composition of schools, creates a nurtur ing and supportive environment thereby improving academic quality. Ã¢â¬Å"Although education is often promoted as a pathway out of poverty, American educational disparities are such that the families with the greatest need are often relegated to the least adequate educational resources (Sue Sue, 2013). 60 years after de jure segregation was outlawed, schools are almost as segregated as they were before desegregation (Hannah-Jones, 2014). Ã¢â¬Å"Such segregation is sometimes calledShow MoreRelatedMichelle Julia Anderson- 250848884. 2230E- Erin Orr. Tuesday,1329 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrr Tuesday, February 7th, 2017 Multiculturalism has played a significant role in Canada, since its establishment 40 years ago. Much of Canadian society is reflective of different cultures from around the world making multiculturalism a very relevant topic to Canadians. 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Friday, December 27, 2019
The Parliamentary Debate on the Munich Agreement World War II is among the most significant wars in American history. Although the U.S. didnÃ¢â¬â¢t join the war efforts directly until after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the impact the war had on the U.S. was great. Among other causes, the Munich Agreement was one of many things that came into in existence paving the way for WWII to begin. As addressed in the Parliamentary Debate on the Munich Agreement, many in the British Parliament (Winston Churchill, Neville Chamberlain, etc.) discussed the course of action that should be taken regarding Germany and Hitler. Many, including Neville Chamberlain signed this agreement in hopes of maintaining peace, others, like Winston Churchill believed that holding for peace would ultimately lead to their downfall. The Munich Agreement was a pact that allowed Germany to annex many parts of Czechoslovakia also known as Sudetenland; Sudetenland was along GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s borders and this is where many of the citizens were native in the language but of different races. These plans on Sudetenland, if acted on would inevitably cause another world war, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦it became known in May 1938 that Hitler and his generals were drawing up a plan for the occupation of Czechoslovakia.Ã¢â¬ (Munich Agreement). France and Great Britain were allies with Czechoslovakia at this time; Czechoslovakia was also involved in a treaty with the Soviet Union declaring the readiness of the Russian military to assist France and Great BritainShow MoreRelatedThe Terror Of World War II Essay1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessome debate about this account. At the outbreak of World War I, Hitler applied to serve in the German army. He was accepted in August 1914, though he was still an Austrian citizen. Although he spent much of his time away from the front lines, Hitler was present at a number of significant battles and was wounded at the Somme (www.wikipedia.com). He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross First Class and the Black Wound Badge.After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich and continuedRead MoreThe Terror Of Wwii : Adolf Hitler1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessome debate about this account. At the outbreak of World War I, Hitler applied to serve in the German army. He was accepted in August 1914, though he was still an Austrian citizen. Although he spent much of his time away from the front lines, Hitler was present at a number of significant battles and was wounded at the Somme (www.wikipedia.com). He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross First Class and the Black Wound Badge.After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich and continuedRead MoreThe United Nations7583 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pagesthe centre of World War II in Europe and the Holocaust. Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined the precursor of the NSDAP, the German Workers Party, in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923 he attempted a coup in Munich to seize power. The failed coup resulted in Hitler s imprisonment, during which time he wrote his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf (My Struggle). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty ofRead MoreWhat Is Germany1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBerlin is the largest city with over 3,275,000 people (Elledge). The second largest city is Hamburg with 1,686,100 with Munich following close behind with 1,185,400 people (Elledge). (Unless otherwise noted, all data in the above paragraph came from the article Ã¢â¬Å"Germany Industry SectorsÃ¢â¬ .) Government Political Environment The government in Germany is a federal parliamentary republic. In a government like this, typically most of the executive power is in the Cabinet and the President is moreRead MoreHitler s Impact On The World War II1850 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesof Fine Arts twice, and was rejected both times. Out of money, he moved into a homeless shelter, where he remained for several years. Hitler later pointed to these years as the time when he first cultivated his anti-Semitism, though there is some debate about this account. At the outbreak of World War One, Hitler applied to serve in the German army. He was accepted in August 1914, though he was still an Austrian citizen. Although he spent much of his time away from the front lines, Hitler was presentRead MoreIrish Political Culture Has Changed Fundamentally in the Past Three Decades1871 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthat when power is transferred from a national government it can never be returned and it cannot be re-negotiated. Ireland joined the Common Market back in 1973 by signing the treaty of Rome. At this point electorate were signing up to a trade agreement as well as the Common Agricultural Policy. This means that since then the agricultural system has been controlled by a European government. Also handed over were the rights to the Irish fishing territory which meant that all of the other memberRead MoreEssay on Adolf Hitler: Evil Personified3870 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesNo other historical leader has had his motives, personality, and persuasive abilities questioned and debated by historians, psychologists, theologians, and philosophers to the extent Hitler has. Despite the decades of research, discussion, and debate on Hitler, many questions about him remain unanswered. Personally, as I encountered Hitler in my previous studies of history, I found it virtually impossible to reconcile the fact that a human being could conceive of such evil and that he could convinceRead MoreComparative Government6816 Words Ã |Ã 28 Pagesthat, moment of uncertainty, if in such a moment of uncertainty a person comes and uses the ethnical card it can be very successful (since our identification is one of the few things that are clear to the people) conflict finished in 1995 (Dayton agreement: peace in Bosnia and Herzigovina) Slovenia Republic Linguistic group: Southern Slavic Religion: Catholic Ethnical Minorities: Italian, Austrian Ã¢â¬â not politically important Member of NATO and EU Croatia Republic Linguistic group: SouthernRead MoreThe Lloyd George Coalition4874 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesConservatives had to decide the same. Labour decided to fight independently and the Conservatives decided to carry on the coalition with the Liberals. The Conservatives decided to this as Lloyd George was a popular figure amongst the public. An agreement was made with the Conservative leader Andrew Bonar Law. 150 Lloyd George candidates would not be opposed by Conservatives in the constituencies in which they were standing for election. A letter explaining this position (the coupon) was sent toRead MoreLenin13422 Words Ã |Ã 54 PagesEarly life * 1.1 Childhood: 1870Ã¢â¬â1887 * 1.2 University and political radicalism: 1887Ã¢â¬â1893 * 2 Revolutionary activities * 2.1 St. Petersburg and foreign visits: 1893Ã¢â¬â1895 * 2.2 Siberian exile: 1895Ã¢â¬â1900 * 2.3 Munich, London and Geneva: 1900Ã¢â¬â1905 * 2.4 The 1905 Revolution: 1905Ã¢â¬â1907 * 2.5 Return to exile: 1907Ã¢â¬â1917 * 3 The February Revolution * 4 The April Theses * 5 The October Revolution * 6 Forming a government * 6.1 Establishing
Thursday, December 19, 2019
ASSIGNMENT Chinese Foreign Policy ------------------------------------------------- Does Chinese Foreign Policy reflect the concerns of a status quo power or a revisionist power? INTRODUCTION Before addressing this question, it is essential to establish what is meant by a status quo or revisionist power. Hans Morgenthau described a status quo power as one that favours and aims to maintain Ã¢â¬Å"the distribution of power as it exists at a particular moment in historyÃ¢â¬ ,. Similarly, proponents of power transition theory use the concept of the Ã¢â¬Å"rules of the gameÃ¢â¬ regarding nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ power relations to define status quo and revisionist states, the latter desiring to Ã¢â¬Å"redraft the rulesÃ¢â¬ out of a Ã¢â¬Å"general dissatisfactionÃ¢â¬ with their shareÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦An access-denial strategy is therefore a core safeguard for China, being itself a continental power neighbour to four states that possess nuclear weapons and surrounded by a perimeter of on-going conflicts. Furthermore, a maritime build-up is desired not only for its strategic importance but also to address the popular naval complex among the Chinese nationalist publ ic who has often blamed their countryÃ¢â¬â¢s defeats on their weak navy. It would, as figured by Chinese leaders, help correct ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s self-consciousness as the only permanent member of UNSC that lacks naval capacity join rescue missions and crisis interventions. ECONOMY It is widely perceived by the West that ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s growing confidence is mainly attributed to its growing economic power, which is also the issue area where Western observers notice a particularly Ã¢â¬ËprovocativeÃ¢â¬â¢ tone, supporting their verdict with examples such as Wen JiabaoÃ¢â¬â¢s criticism of the US Ã¢â¬Å"economic mismanagementÃ¢â¬ or Chinese banksÃ¢â¬â¢ concerns over Ã¢â¬Å"the dollarÃ¢â¬â¢s continued role as the international reserve currencyÃ¢â¬ . Meanwhile, Chinese leaders seem to retain a firm grip on its domestic sphere through constraints upon foreign firms (suspected to have used cyber-attacks on these, although denied by Beijing), deliberate bias toward state-owned companies and rigid protection of the much criticised RMB. In the global scene, China is also pursuing a more assertiveShow MoreRelatedChina and Us Cultural Differences1843 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesChina and US Cultural Differences China and US Cultural Differences Introduction With more than six billion people in the world is not difficult to realize that there are many different cultures and belief systems around the world that differ from the one we live in here in the US. There are countries that are governed by kings; there are others that are governed by religion, and others that are governed by republics. There are many different ways in which to prove that the world is not the sameRead MoreThe Future Of Us China Relations Essay1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"China RisingÃ¢â¬ is a non-arguable fact and the one of the most important subject in the twenty-first century. The rise of China is a relative threat to the neighbor regions or other great powers. Further, some scholars also comment that China either will replace or has already superseded the United State as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s only superpower. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s growth is too rapid and massive that other nations have limited or no opportunity to compete with it. By using international relation s theories to analyze US-ChinaRead MoreThe Conflict Of The South China Sea Threatens Us China Relations1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe main point of the article is that the ongoing conflict in the South China Sea threatens US-China relations and, if not resolved, will lead to instability in the region. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s solution to this is that leaders of both countries work together to achieve a better understanding of the concerns coming from both sides, as well as lay out consequences for certain actions and to commit themselves to avoiding further escalation. This is tricky because neither country wants to look like it is givingRead MoreContrasting the Politics, History, Economics and Education of China and the US1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages China, a fast-developing country in the 21st century has a long way to go to catch up with America, a well-developed country. The differences between the two countries are part of the reasons why this happen. In political aspect, they have different systems to function. In historical aspect, China has a different history from the United States. In the economical way, China is making a great progress, but the poverty and unemployment still commonly exist in the country while the US does a betterRead MoreA Short Note On Senkaku Islands Dispute : The Confrontation Among China, Us And Japan1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDiaoyu/Senkaku Islands Dispute: The Confrontation among China, US and Japan Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands Dispute is defined as a territorial dispute over a group of islands in East China Sea called Senkaku (Japan), Diaoyu (China) or Tiaoyutai (Taiwan). The dispute has been a main focus of Sino-Japanese political and military conflicts for a long time. Meanwhile, in order to strengthen its dominance in the Asia-Pacific area, the US government aligned with Japan to contain ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s power, making the issueRead MoreWage Gap Between China an Us1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgap between US and China The importance of international trade increased dramatically for the US as well as China. The ratio of the sum of exports and imports to GDP approximately doubled from the early 1970s to the mid 2000s for the US. And there is a striking feature that China was involved in about 7% percent of world trade by the mid-2000s. There is no doubt that the international trade have influenced the wage level around the world. Do wages equalize between US and China? It is the mostRead MoreAnalysis Of The Us-China Trade Essay1574 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnalysis of the US-China Trade The U.S. trade deficit has risen more or less steadily since 1992. In the second quarter of 2004, the trade deficit relative to GDP surpassed the 5 percent mark for the first time. Many economists already considered trade deficits above 4 percent of GDP dangerously high. The fear is that continued growth in this external imbalance of the U.S. economy will ultimately spook overseas investors. http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2004/09/b193700.html The United StatesRead MoreGdp Of The Us, Eu28, Canada, And China1348 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Student: An Nguyen Dr: Konou ECON 602 McNeese State University I. GDP for the US, EU28, Canada, and China. 1. The USA Figure 1.1: GDP of USA from 1995 to 2014 The United States experienced a crisis in 2008, whereas incentive is the major problem (Kohn, 2009). Incentives make lenders ignore underwrite Ã¢â¬Å"because they did not intend to hold the loan themselvesÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore, from the experience gathered by many years, the GDP increase gradually and show a good economic trend; those investorsRead MoreUs China Relations During The Cold War1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUS-China Relations in the Cold War Rough Draft The Cold War was a time of great upheaval for the United States and for the world. After the detonation of the atomic bombs at the end of World War II, war itself was forever changed. Atomic weaponry brought the potential for destruction on a massive scale. Concurrently, nations all over the globe were left reeling from the casualties of the war. Communist Dictatorships took hold in much of Eastern Europe and Asia, under Joseph Stalin, Mao Zedong, and